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Synthetic data generation for Indic handwritten text recognition
Partha Pratim RoyAkash MohtaBidyut B. Chaudhuri

This paper presents a novel approach to generate synthetic dataset for handwritten word recognition systems. It is difficult to recognize handwritten scripts for which sufficient training data is not readily available or it may be expensive to collect such data. Hence, it becomes hard to train recognition systems owing to lack of proper dataset. To overcome such problems, synthetic data could be used to create or expand the existing training dataset to improve recognition performance. Any available digital data from online newspaper and such sources can be used to generate synthetic data. In this paper, we propose to add distortion/deformation to digital data in such a way that the underlying pattern is preserved, so that the image so produced bears a close similarity to actual handwritten samples. The images thus produced can be used independently to train the system or be combined with natural handwritten data to augment the original dataset and improve the recognition system. We experimented using synthetic data to improve the recognition accuracy of isolated characters and words. The framework is tested on 2 Indic scripts - Devanagari (Hindi) and Bengali (Bangla), for numeral, character and word recognition. We have obtained encouraging results from the experiment. Finally, the experiment with Latin text verifies the utility of the approach.

Humor Detection in English-Hindi Code-Mixed Social Media Content : Corpus and Baseline System
Ankush KhandelwalSahil SwamiSyed S. AkhtarManish Shrivastava

The tremendous amount of user generated data through social networking sites led to the gaining popularity of automatic text classification in the field of computational linguistics over the past decade. Within this domain, one problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers is automatic humor detection in texts. In depth semantic understanding of the text is required to detect humor which makes the problem difficult to automate. With increase in the number of social media users, many multilingual speakers often interchange between languages while posting on social media which is called code-mixing. It introduces some challenges in the field of linguistic analysis of social media content (Barman et al., 2014), like spelling variations and non-grammatical structures in a sentence. Past researches include detecting puns in texts (Kao et al., 2016) and humor in one-lines (Mihalcea et al., 2010) in a single language, but with the tremendous amount of code-mixed data available online, there is a need to develop techniques which detects humor in code-mixed tweets. In this paper, we analyze the task of humor detection in texts and describe a freely available corpus containing English-Hindi code-mixed tweets annotated with humorous(H) or non-humorous(N) tags. We also tagged the words in the tweets with Language tags (English/Hindi/Others). Moreover, we describe the experiments carried out on the corpus and provide a baseline classification system which distinguishes between humorous and non-humorous texts.

Automatic Language Identification System for Hindi and Magahi
Priya RaniAtul Kr. OjhaGirish Nath Jha

Language identification has become a prerequisite for all kinds of automated text processing systems. In this paper, we present a rule-based language identifier tool for two closely related Indo-Aryan languages: Hindi and Magahi. This system has currently achieved an accuracy of approx 86.34%. We hope to improve this in the future. Automatic identification of languages will be significant in the accuracy of output of Web Crawlers.

JU_KS@SAIL_CodeMixed-2017: Sentiment Analysis for Indian Code Mixed Social Media Texts
Kamal Sarkar

This paper reports about our work in the NLP Tool Contest @ICON-2017, shared task on Sentiment Analysis for Indian Languages (SAIL) (code mixed). To implement our system, we have used a machine learning algo-rithm called Multinomial Na\"ive Bayes trained using n-gram and SentiWordnet features. We have also used a small SentiWordnet for English and a small SentiWordnet for Bengali. But we have not used any SentiWordnet for Hindi language. We have tested our system on Hindi-English and Bengali-English code mixed social media data sets released for the contest. The performance of our system is very close to the best system participated in the contest. For both Bengali-English and Hindi-English runs, our system was ranked at the 3rd position out of all submitted runs and awarded the 3rd prize in the contest.

Gender Prediction in English-Hindi Code-Mixed Social Media Content : Corpus and Baseline System
Ankush KhandelwalSahil SwamiSyed Sarfaraz AkhtarManish Shrivastava

The rapid expansion in the usage of social media networking sites leads to a huge amount of unprocessed user generated data which can be used for text mining. Author profiling is the problem of automatically determining profiling aspects like the author's gender and age group through a text is gaining much popularity in computational linguistics. Most of the past research in author profiling is concentrated on English texts \cite{1,2}. However many users often change the language while posting on social media which is called code-mixing, and it develops some challenges in the field of text classification and author profiling like variations in spelling, non-grammatical structure and transliteration \cite{3}. There are very few English-Hindi code-mixed annotated datasets of social media content present online \cite{4}. In this paper, we analyze the task of author's gender prediction in code-mixed content and present a corpus of English-Hindi texts collected from Twitter which is annotated with author's gender. We also explore language identification of every word in this corpus. We present a supervised classification baseline system which uses various machine learning algorithms to identify the gender of an author using a text, based on character and word level features.

A Corpus of English-Hindi Code-Mixed Tweets for Sarcasm Detection
Sahil SwamiAnkush KhandelwalVinay SinghSyed Sarfaraz AkhtarManish Shrivastava

Social media platforms like twitter and facebook have be- come two of the largest mediums used by people to express their views to- wards different topics. Generation of such large user data has made NLP tasks like sentiment analysis and opinion mining much more important. Using sarcasm in texts on social media has become a popular trend lately. Using sarcasm reverses the meaning and polarity of what is implied by the text which poses challenge for many NLP tasks. The task of sarcasm detection in text is gaining more and more importance for both commer- cial and security services. We present the first English-Hindi code-mixed dataset of tweets marked for presence of sarcasm and irony where each token is also annotated with a language tag. We present a baseline su- pervised classification system developed using the same dataset which achieves an average F-score of 78.4 after using random forest classifier and performing 10-fold cross validation.

Cross Script Hindi English NER Corpus from Wikipedia
Mohd Zeeshan AnsariTanvir AhmadMd Arshad Ali

The text generated on social media platforms is essentially a mixed lingual text. The mixing of language in any form produces considerable amount of difficulty in language processing systems. Moreover, the advancements in language processing research depends upon the availability of standard corpora. The development of mixed lingual Indian Named Entity Recognition (NER) systems are facing obstacles due to unavailability of the standard evaluation corpora. Such corpora may be of mixed lingual nature in which text is written using multiple languages predominantly using a single script only. The motivation of our work is to emphasize the automatic generation such kind of corpora in order to encourage mixed lingual Indian NER. The paper presents the preparation of a Cross Script Hindi-English Corpora from Wikipedia category pages. The corpora is successfully annotated using standard CoNLL-2003 categories of PER, LOC, ORG, and MISC. Its evaluation is carried out on a variety of machine learning algorithms and favorable results are achieved.

An Ensemble Model for Sentiment Analysis of Hindi-English Code-Mixed Data
Madan Gopal JhanwarArpita Das

In multilingual societies like India, code-mixed social media texts comprise the majority of the Internet. Detecting the sentiment of the code-mixed user opinions plays a crucial role in understanding social, economic and political trends. In this paper, we propose an ensemble of character-trigrams based LSTM model and word-ngrams based Multinomial Naive Bayes (MNB) model to identify the sentiments of Hindi-English (Hi-En) code-mixed data. The ensemble model combines the strengths of rich sequential patterns from the LSTM model and polarity of keywords from the probabilistic ngram model to identify sentiments in sparse and inconsistent code-mixed data. Experiments on reallife user code-mixed data reveals that our approach yields state-of-the-art results as compared to several baselines and other deep learning based proposed methods.

A Dataset for Building Code-Mixed Goal Oriented Conversation Systems
Suman BanerjeeNikita MogheSiddhartha AroraMitesh M. Khapra

There is an increasing demand for goal-oriented conversation systems which can assist users in various day-to-day activities such as booking tickets, restaurant reservations, shopping, etc. Most of the existing datasets for building such conversation systems focus on monolingual conversations and there is hardly any work on multilingual and/or code-mixed conversations. Such datasets and systems thus do not cater to the multilingual regions of the world, such as India, where it is very common for people to speak more than one language and seamlessly switch between them resulting in code-mixed conversations. For example, a Hindi speaking user looking to book a restaurant would typically ask, "Kya tum is restaurant mein ek table book karne mein meri help karoge?" ("Can you help me in booking a table at this restaurant?"). To facilitate the development of such code-mixed conversation models, we build a goal-oriented dialog dataset containing code-mixed conversations. Specifically, we take the text from the DSTC2 restaurant reservation dataset and create code-mixed versions of it in Hindi-English, Bengali-English, Gujarati-English and Tamil-English. We also establish initial baselines on this dataset using existing state of the art models. This dataset along with our baseline implementations is made publicly available for research purposes.

Cross-Lingual Task-Specific Representation Learning for Text Classification in Resource Poor Languages
Nurendra ChoudharyRajat SinghManish Shrivastava

Neural network models have shown promising results for text classification. However, these solutions are limited by their dependence on the availability of annotated data. The prospect of leveraging resource-rich languages to enhance the text classification of resource-poor languages is fascinating. The performance on resource-poor languages can significantly improve if the resource availability constraints can be offset. To this end, we present a twin Bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) network with shared parameters consolidated by a contrastive loss function (based on a similarity metric). The model learns the representation of resource-poor and resource-rich sentences in a common space by using the similarity between their assigned annotation tags. Hence, the model projects sentences with similar tags closer and those with different tags farther from each other. We evaluated our model on the classification tasks of sentiment analysis and emoji prediction for resource-poor languages - Hindi and Telugu and resource-rich languages - English and Spanish. Our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches in both the tasks across all metrics.

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