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Bangla Word Clustering Based on Tri-gram, 4-gram and 5-gram Language Model
Dipaloke SahaMd Saddam HossainMD. Saiful IslamSabir Ismail

In this paper, we describe a research method that generates Bangla word clusters on the basis of relating to meaning in language and contextual similarity. The importance of word clustering is in parts of speech (POS) tagging, word sense disambiguation, text classification, recommender system, spell checker, grammar checker, knowledge discover and for many others Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications. In the history of word clustering, English and some other languages have already implemented some methods on word clustering efficiently. But due to lack of the resources, word clustering in Bangla has not been still implemented efficiently. Presently, its implementation is in the beginning stage. In some research of word clustering in English based on preceding and next five words of a key word they found an efficient result. Now, we are trying to implement the tri-gram, 4-gram and 5-gram model of word clustering for Bangla to observe which one is the best among them. We have started our research with quite a large corpus of approximate 1 lakh Bangla words. We are using a machine learning technique in this research. We will generate word clusters and analyze the clusters by testing some different threshold values.

Handwritten Bangla Character Recognition Using The State-of-Art Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Md Zahangir AlomPeheding SidikeMahmudul HasanTark M. TahaVijayan K. Asari

In spite of advances in object recognition technology, Handwritten Bangla Character Recognition (HBCR) remains largely unsolved due to the presence of many ambiguous handwritten characters and excessively cursive Bangla handwritings. Even the best existing recognizers do not lead to satisfactory performance for practical applications related to Bangla character recognition and have much lower performance than those developed for English alpha-numeric characters. To improve the performance of HBCR, we herein present the application of the state-of-the-art Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) including VGG Network, All Convolution Network (All-Conv Net), Network in Network (NiN), Residual Network, FractalNet, and DenseNet for HBCR. The deep learning approaches have the advantage of extracting and using feature information, improving the recognition of 2D shapes with a high degree of invariance to translation, scaling and other distortions. We systematically evaluated the performance of DCNN models on publicly available Bangla handwritten character dataset called CMATERdb and achieved the superior recognition accuracy when using DCNN models. This improvement would help in building an automatic HBCR system for practical applications.

Document Decomposition of Bangla Printed Text
Md. Fahad HasanTasmin AfrozSabir IsmailMd. Saiful Islam

Today all kind of information is getting digitized and along with all this digitization, the huge archive of various kinds of documents is being digitized too. We know that, Optical Character Recognition is the method through which, newspapers and other paper documents convert into digital resources. But, it is a fact that this method works on texts only. As a result, if we try to process any document which contains non-textual zones, then we will get garbage texts as output. That is why; in order to digitize documents properly they should be prepossessed carefully. And while preprocessing, segmenting document in different regions according to the category properly is most important. But, the Optical Character Recognition processes available for Bangla language have no such algorithm that can categorize a newspaper/book page fully. So we worked to decompose a document into its several parts like headlines, sub headlines, columns, images etc. And if the input is skewed and rotated, then the input was also deskewed and de-rotated. To decompose any Bangla document we found out the edges of the input image. Then we find out the horizontal and vertical area of every pixel where it lies in. Later on the input image was cut according to these areas. Then we pick each and every sub image and found out their height-width ratio, line height. Then according to these values the sub images were categorized. To deskew the image we found out the skew angle and de skewed the image according to this angle. To de-rotate the image we used the line height, matra line, pixel ratio of matra line.

Zone-based Keyword Spotting in Bangla and Devanagari Documents
Ayan Kumar BhuniaPartha Pratim RoyUmapada Pal

In this paper we present a word spotting system in text lines for offline Indic scripts such as Bangla (Bengali) and Devanagari. Recently, it was shown that zone-wise recognition method improves the word recognition performance than conventional full word recognition system in Indic scripts. Inspired with this idea we consider the zone segmentation approach and use middle zone information to improve the traditional word spotting performance. To avoid the problem of zone segmentation using heuristic approach, we propose here an HMM based approach to segment the upper and lower zone components from the text line images. The candidate keywords are searched from a line without segmenting characters or words. Also, we propose a novel feature combining foreground and background information of text line images for keyword-spotting by character filler models. A significant improvement in performance is noted by using both foreground and background information than their individual one. Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradient (PHOG) feature has been used in our word spotting framework. From the experiment, it has been noted that the proposed zone-segmentation based system outperforms traditional approaches of word spotting.

Word Searching in Scene Image and Video Frame in Multi-Script Scenario using Dynamic Shape Coding
Partha Pratim RoyAyan Kumar BhuniaAvirup BhattacharyyaUmapada Pal

Retrieval of text information from natural scene images and video frames is a challenging task due to its inherent problems like complex character shapes, low resolution, background noise, etc. Available OCR systems often fail to retrieve such information in scene/video frames. Keyword spotting, an alternative way to retrieve information, performs efficient text searching in such scenarios. However, current word spotting techniques in scene/video images are script-specific and they are mainly developed for Latin script. This paper presents a novel word spotting framework using dynamic shape coding for text retrieval in natural scene image and video frames. The framework is designed to search query keyword from multiple scripts with the help of on-the-fly script-wise keyword generation for the corresponding script. We have used a two-stage word spotting approach using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to detect the translated keyword in a given text line by identifying the script of the line. A novel unsupervised dynamic shape coding based scheme has been used to group similar shape characters to avoid confusion and to improve text alignment. Next, the hypotheses locations are verified to improve retrieval performance. To evaluate the proposed system for searching keyword from natural scene image and video frames, we have considered two popular Indic scripts such as Bangla (Bengali) and Devanagari along with English. Inspired by the zone-wise recognition approach in Indic scripts[1], zone-wise text information has been used to improve the traditional word spotting performance in Indic scripts. For our experiment, a dataset consisting of images of different scenes and video frames of English, Bangla and Devanagari scripts were considered. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of our proposed word spotting approach.

Cross-language Framework for Word Recognition and Spotting of Indic Scripts
Ayan Kumar BhuniaPartha Pratim RoyAkash MohtaUmapada Pal

Handwritten word recognition and spotting of low-resource scripts are difficult as sufficient training data is not available and it is often expensive for collecting data of such scripts. This paper presents a novel cross language platform for handwritten word recognition and spotting for such low-resource scripts where training is performed with a sufficiently large dataset of an available script (considered as source script) and testing is done on other scripts (considered as target script). Training with one source script and testing with another script to have a reasonable result is not easy in handwriting domain due to the complex nature of handwriting variability among scripts. Also it is difficult in mapping between source and target characters when they appear in cursive word images. The proposed Indic cross language framework exploits a large resource of dataset for training and uses it for recognizing and spotting text of other target scripts where sufficient amount of training data is not available. Since, Indic scripts are mostly written in 3 zones, namely, upper, middle and lower, we employ zone-wise character (or component) mapping for efficient learning purpose. The performance of our cross-language framework depends on the extent of similarity between the source and target scripts. Hence, we devise an entropy based script similarity score using source to target character mapping that will provide a feasibility of cross language transcription. We have tested our approach in three Indic scripts, namely, Bangla, Devanagari and Gurumukhi, and the corresponding results are reported.

Cross-language Framework for Word Recognition and Spotting of Indic Scripts
Ayan Kumar BhuniaPartha Pratim RoyAkash MohtaUmapada Pal

Handwritten word recognition and spotting of low-resource scripts are difficult as sufficient training data is not available and it is often expensive for collecting data of such scripts. This paper presents a novel cross language platform for handwritten word recognition and spotting for such low-resource scripts where training is performed with a sufficiently large dataset of an available script (considered as source script) and testing is done on other scripts (considered as target script). Training with one source script and testing with another script to have a reasonable result is not easy in handwriting domain due to the complex nature of handwriting variability among scripts. Also it is difficult in mapping between source and target characters when they appear in cursive word images. The proposed Indic cross language framework exploits a large resource of dataset for training and uses it for recognizing and spotting text of other target scripts where sufficient amount of training data is not available. Since, Indic scripts are mostly written in 3 zones, namely, upper, middle and lower, we employ zone-wise character (or component) mapping for efficient learning purpose. The performance of our cross-language framework depends on the extent of similarity between the source and target scripts. Hence, we devise an entropy based script similarity score using source to target character mapping that will provide a feasibility of cross language transcription. We have tested our approach in three Indic scripts, namely, Bangla, Devanagari and Gurumukhi, and the corresponding results are reported.

A Generative Model of a Pronunciation Lexicon for Hindi
Pramod PandeySomnath Roy

Voice browser applications in Text-to- Speech (TTS) and Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems crucially depend on a pronunciation lexicon. The present paper describes the model of pronunciation lexicon of Hindi developed to automatically generate the output forms of Hindi at two levels, the and the (PS, in short for Prosodic Structure). The latter level involves both syllable-division and stress placement. The paper describes the tool developed for generating the two-level outputs of lexica in Hindi.

Comparison of SMT and RBMT The Requirement of Hybridization for Marathi-Hindi MT
Sreelekha. SPushpak Bhattacharyya

We present in this paper our work on comparison between Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) and Rule-based machine translation for translation from Marathi to Hindi. Rule Based systems although robust take lots of time to build. On the other hand statistical machine translation systems are easier to create, maintain and improve upon. We describe the development of a basic Marathi-Hindi SMT system and evaluate its performance. Through a detailed error analysis, we, point out the relative strengths and weaknesses of both systems. Effectively, we shall see that even with a small amount of training corpus a statistical machine translation system has many advantages for high quality domain specific machine translation over that of a rule-based counterpart.

Structural Analysis of Hindi Phonetics and A Method for Extraction of Phonetically Rich Sentences from a Very Large Hindi Text Corpus
Shrikant MalviyaRohit MishraUma Shanker Tiwary

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) and Text to speech (TTS) are two prominent area of research in human computer interaction nowadays. A set of phonetically rich sentences is in a matter of importance in order to develop these two interactive modules of HCI. Essentially, the set of phonetically rich sentences has to cover all possible phone units distributed uniformly. Selecting such a set from a big corpus with maintaining phonetic characteristic based similarity is still a challenging problem. The major objective of this paper is to devise a criteria in order to select a set of sentences encompassing all phonetic aspects of a corpus with size as minimum as possible. First, this paper presents a statistical analysis of Hindi phonetics by observing the structural characteristics. Further a two stage algorithm is proposed to extract phonetically rich sentences with a high variety of triphones from the EMILLE Hindi corpus. The algorithm consists of a distance measuring criteria to select a sentence in order to improve the triphone distribution. Moreover, a special preprocessing method is proposed to score each triphone in terms of inverse probability in order to fasten the algorithm. The results show that the approach efficiently build uniformly distributed phonetically-rich corpus with optimum number of sentences.

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