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Language Modeling for Code-Switched Data: Challenges and Approaches
Ganji SreeramRohit Sinha

Lately, the problem of code-switching has gained a lot of attention and has emerged as an active area of research. In bilingual communities, the speakers commonly embed the words and phrases of a non-native language into the syntax of a native language in their day-to-day communications. The code-switching is a global phenomenon among multilingual communities, still very limited acoustic and linguistic resources are available as yet. For developing effective speech based applications, the ability of the existing language technologies to deal with the code-switched data can not be over emphasized. The code-switching is broadly classified into two modes: inter-sentential and intra-sentential code-switching. In this work, we have studied the intra-sentential problem in the context of code-switching language modeling task. The salient contributions of this paper includes: (i) the creation of Hindi-English code-switching text corpus by crawling a few blogging sites educating about the usage of the Internet (ii) the exploration of the parts-of-speech features towards more effective modeling of Hindi-English code-switched data by the monolingual language model (LM) trained on native (Hindi) language data, and (iii) the proposal of a novel textual factor referred to as the code-switch factor (CS-factor), which allows the LM to predict the code-switching instances. In the context of recognition of the code-switching data, the substantial reduction in the PPL is achieved with the use of POS factors and also the proposed CS-factor provides independent as well as additive gain in the PPL.

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